I found a paper recently called External Barriers Experienced by Gifted and Talented Girls & Women by Sally M. Reis. It's been around for a bit, but I hadn't read it before. An interesting and funny quote:
"Hartmann (1981) compared statistics on different types of households and found that the presence of an adult male creates more work for a woman than the presence of a child under ten, even when the man believes himself to be sharing the housework equally."
This next one didn't surprise me too much, but I didn't expect the effect to be as strong as they found it to be.
"Even in college or university classes in which women outnumber men, women are outtalked in class. Catherine Krupnick (1984, 1992) studied talented women at Harvard and found that they speak less and are interrupted more. She also studied the classroom dynamics of coed seminars that resulted from the decision to change Wheaton College to a coeducational environment. She had expected to find greater classroom equity than she had seen elsewhere because the student body and faculty were still predominately female. Her results showed the opposite however, as even when men made up just one to two ninths of the seminar classes she studied, they did one third to one half of the talking."
There's also stuff on women making less money than men, but that's well known at this point. Doesn't make in unimportant or not worth mentioning, though.